Malnutrition is one among several causative factors for global bee pollinator declines. Given the importance of nutrition, it is imperative to understand bee nutrition holistically, identifying dietary sources that may fulfill bee nutritional needs. Targeted sterol analysis and untargeted metabolomics were conducted on commercially-pollinated crop pollens, bee-collected crop pollens, three vegetable oils (often added to artificial protein supplements by beekeepers), and one commonly used artificial protein supplement.
Chakrabarti, P., Morre, J.T., Maier, C.S. and Sagili, R.R. (2019) The Omics Approach to Bee Nutritional Landscape. Metabolomics 15: 127.